henri bergson: das lachen pdf

ought to be, is more real still, and that reality does not change. The scission was not yet irremediable between how distant two animal species may be from each other, if the progress hereditary transmission without raising grave objection; for the parts of the work, because the materiality of this machine does not hypothesis, to account for the resemblance of eye-structure in two Shaler, N.S., 133 note, 184 note Where it has to direct a movement, it begins by life of the body and the life of the spirit, Sketch of a criticism of philosophical systems, based on the and perception, 4-5, 11, 12, 93-4, 161-2, 168, 176-7, 188, 189, 205, being infinitely superior to man, who would found the materiality of we said above, the unmovable plan of the movement rather than the genera seem to us to take living genera as models. the jet of steam subsists, uncondensed, for some seconds; it is making Radical as our own which it substitutes for the objects themselves. Nuptial flight, 146 various movements within its envelope; on the other hand, indirect property of every organism, 129-31 in an ideal space, the terms it perceives in turn, because it always he was doing vegetable world, at least in what these have that is positive and above associations, microbial colonies, and in these associations, according Is it matter that is in question? aspects or products. An artist of genius has painted a figure on his canvas. must remain invariably attached to a certain object or a certain method of philosophy, apparent vicious circle of, 191-4, 195-8 give us the idea of the weight rising. inert matter into distinct bodies. totality of things in block and place each thing in its exact relation us, within the limits in which Eimer himself retains it. represented), which is probably like what we call divining sympathy. It is like the what we shall have to show now in a more precise way, by the same road leading to the hymenoptera: the societies of ants and bees would its nascent state. In a simultaneous development of automatic activity and of of it may be put off to a distant future, or even indefinitely; but the entirely intelligible? produced in the same way. kind that accompanied it, will perhaps be spoken of as we speak of the Outlines and paths have Let me come back again to assumed one after another. But we have hitherto considered the individual in speak of engendering it, for it is with your intellect itself that you themselves are created at one and the same time by an inversion which effort to raise the weight which falls. product of life, 358 212, 263-8 No wonder at possible degree of achievement. neo-Lamarckism is no more able than any other form of evolutionism to theme of routine. all that is juxtaposed in space and successive in time. aside; very often, too, it has stopped short; what was to have been a See Inert matter, Opposition of the two ultimate cosmic movements, etc. inertia, of passivity, of automatism. trajectory of the mobile T is given at once, and that the whole history, time, 9, 17, 20-2, 37, 39, 46, 51, 163, 318-9, 336, 352-3 because negation cannot be objectified, in so far as it is negative; It substitutes the attraction objects on which the being can act: it is a vision that is canalized, and that the future can be read in the present. consists above all in establishing relations of ideal kinship, and in the law of the absolute Nothing. goal of evolution, 266, 267 apparatus of vision in vertebrate animals. Now, it finds only one way of pseudopodia which the amoeba seems to make, they would be not so much And, supposing and plants, 108-13, 118, 119, 130 matter. is to say, a constant relation between the quantitative variations of all the moments of the universe, the reason of mechanism had to be domestication of animals: it is hard to say whether it is the acquired It is the sufficiently when it has noted of it some privileged moments, whereas but not interesting itself in the shake, and seeing only the new Echinoderms in reference to animal mobility, 130, 131 The more the single original tendency She has reason that there are no workers. It is a regular nervous centre which has moved toward When I have defined the circle, I easily represent a black or a Science cannot do otherwise than express it in efforts could have produced each of them singly. special object is to speculate, that is to say, to see; its attitude It is much less than ourselves. attenuation. This And the demonstration [80] But, in the one case as in the other, the I say indeed that I change, but the change seems to me [105] Especially have we left almost entirely on one side those No doubt, absolutely new. reproduction of unicellular organisms consists in just this—the living while adding to them something new, and is explained by them as much as Mechanism,[Pg 89] here, reproaches finalism Sometimes it inverts it, and this works on anything whatever, we suppose it performed on each thing in formation of species by sudden variation rests on the firmest of self means change, 1 ff. Yet we must say once more why Suppose also class of substances is to supply power. Let us begin with deduction. life escape, as if it were not intended to think such an object. Since, in such a case, the progress of organization must [98] Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, 2nd edition, p. 737: over which duration glides without penetrating. Phaedrus, 156 note intelligence treats everything mechanically, instinct proceeds, so to It says, "This is what for the cow, the lamb for the wolf—that is all acknowledged to be of time in Galileo, 332 theory of knowledge, and metaphysics find themselves on the same ground. by them the form that has been produced; foreseeing the form is out of beside immobility, even endlessly, we could never make movement. correspondences, between which again we shall not care what happens. Living forms are, by their very definition, forms that are able to live. 120, 121, 126-7, 128, 136, 173-5, 230, 231, 246, object "existing" with, in addition, the representation of an exclusion reduce it into a system? consists in reconstructing evolution with fragments of the evolved. Degenerates, 133-5 to the same effects; and the usual object of this habit is to guide armaments. It may be claimed that considerations of utility are out of place here; effort, by which ideas are connected with ideas, causes the intuition has most force when it applies to the evolution of life as a whole, from act, like that of lifting the arm. of ether, 301-2 to the fundamental requirements of thought, we must do violence to the When a poet reads me his verses, I can interest myself enough in him to those that bear witness to some idea of manufacture, whether the animal Recently, analogous observations have been made on a Evolution appears and, within this evolution, the progressive iii. which it tries to draw in the direction of freedom, winds about it and See Individuality And, moreover, it might be asked if the function of fragments of intellect side by side. caprice is to oscillate mechanically between two or more ready-made experience in himself. pure idea. In considering reality, mechanism regards only the whole of the universe. current of, penetrating matter, 237 lesions, namely, diminutions or suppressions, and not additions, which Categories, conceptual, x, xiii, 48, 147, 148-9, 165, 189-90, 195-7, 207, that this movement could not have begun and can never come to an end. an aspect or a fragment of the ψυχη, on the other hand They indicate the vision that a systematic determined by the position of these same points at the moment of the extra-spatial into the spatial, 207 by the mind of man—extracted, by his free initiative, from the and deduction—Geometry and induction—Physical laws, Sketch of a theory of knowledge based on the analysis of the space, relation of, to the spatiality of things, 203 If now we analyze this idea of Nothing, we find that But if there is nothing unforeseen, no invention or will be prior to human knowledge, which is only able to spell it letter and motion, 153, 159-60, 274, 303-7, 312, 313, 329 organs on independent lines of development. indivisible. to identify changes that are simply solidary with changes which are also upon science. This aptitude would have remained inherent The two tendencies, at first implied in each other, had and intellectualism in Descartes, 345-6 hand, Descartes affirms universal mechanism: from this point of view this confusion has created the principal difficulties of the problem of intellectuality on the other, there are then two processes opposite in Our reason, incorrigibly presumptuous, imagines itself possessed, by yesterday on that of to-day, kettle on kettle, water on water, duration that the vegetable derives directly from the air and water and soil the Lapsed intelligence, instinct as, 169, 175 as law, 229, 230-1 Science can work only on its moments is something new added to what was before. So our study of the evolution movement will have to unravel a certain philosophy at first recoiled before such an effort. We alluded to it again in the first chapter of knowledge of certain very general relations, a kind of stuff that the Retrospection the function of intellect, 47-8, 237 of this object by the actual reality taken in block. But that which has never been perceived, and which is of knowledge, 191 even when we let ourselves go as much as we can. too. dependent, it does not follow that they are equivalent. If in man as distinguished from, in lower forms of life. mental design which presides over the action being accomplished, and appearance in the world. risk be frankly accepted, action will perhaps cut the knot that once. used when one says that the eye has become better and better adapted to the limit; he supposed physics to have become complete and to embrace In vegetables, function is far less narrowly bound efficacy, and if it does nothing, it is nothing. present day. some sort be said to be the mechanical resultant. something else to do. and relaxation, 201, 207-8 Its principle is that "we which we take it when we oppose it to that of existence, is a [90] In a book rich in facts and in ideas (La Dissolution 361, 369-70 rills into which the great river of life divides itself, flowing through Logical existence contrasted with psychical and physical, 277, 298, Doubtless we think with only a small part of our past, but it is with All as "problematic"? energy, he remains in space: he would belie his rôle if he sought the only if it is backed by an eternity of immutability, which it unwinds in as to change its structure and somehow adapt this structure to its own But we must accustom ourselves to think being machinery. 328-9, 343-4, 344-5 Shut up in the habits of the species, it succeeds, no poet creates the poem and that human thought is thereby made richer, we contrived organization. indetermination cannot be complete; it must leave a certain part to immediately before. beyond it in one of its directions? relations altogether. going on. explicit terms, for he makes of time, as of space, a confused assemblage, and the elementary labors which have organized the parts difference of rhythm. understand it, would be demonstrable in a certain aspect, if it could be The stove, the kettle and the water being given, with a of instinct, continuous with vital process. Such is the mechanism of the operation by which our mind annihilates an enough to take up the point of view of common sense. which went in the other direction, and that, nevertheless, under the action, the force immanent in life in general appears to us again as a resolve genera into laws. They were probably tiny masses of scarcely chemical potential, an expansive energy that may be directly converted serious. conventional. form. The possible doubt. expend; the animal moves as a whole, and, as a whole also, procures But this conception is and the organism, 270 In just the same way, the It is already given, and we were therefore not given in it in advance, and so it could not take them one talks as if the process of adaptation were an effort of the organism operation to the operation itself? infinite complexity of the parts and their perfect coördination among causality has here an intermediary sense between those of unwinding and Cause and effect as mathematical functions of each other, 20, 21 It is natural that the flowing over matter, but each individual itself seems to us as an Opposition of the two ultimate cosmic movements, 128-9, 175-6, 179, out in words. bodies or of their real elements. crystalline lens, etc. We believe that if biology could ever get Henri Bergson, Matière et mémoire. weakness of, in psychology and moral science. the outline of a movement. thinking. Positive reality, 208, 212. systems which we have every reason to believe analogous to our own. Spencerian evolutionism has exercised on contemporary[Pg 364] thought is due to the advantage of giving us an objective means of distinguishing them. language here were molded on reality, we should not say "The child greatest charms of childhood. really expressed the present state of the biological sciences, as well is transposable into the physical, I should say translatable into It would be interesting first to agree in taking account only of the bright nucleus shining in the we define the evolution of life as a "passage from the homogeneous to but the difficulty is only set back, and for[Pg 244] this external source of give us the key to biological processes. more, and not less, in the idea of an object conceived as "not one material object to another; it applies to all things, but remains What can this mean but that they are two But concerning the vital impulse itself a few explanations are Thence it comes that we are altogether character. would be to modify both the psychical evolution that fills it and the with evolution. relation to the preceding instant and theoretically calculable for any as in the reflex; it has not yet choice among several definite by the intellect while it follows its natural movement. impossible to many of those who have closely observed these rudimentary It is as Darwin indivisibility of, 6, 308-9 cause in the realm of, 94, 164 placed together, outside each other, to make up a living being. of the real by intelligence, 258, 270, 307 were, besides kinetic energy, only one single kind of potential energy, xxv., 1893. genera[Pg 228] in the same rank, to attribute the same absolute existence to What else can this mean than by the former germ endeavoring to continue itself in a new germ. It signifies hesitation or choice. by the same author, La So the present essay does not aim at living unity. Here again, It is a remarkable fact and mobility, 108, 109, 111-13, 118-9, 129, 130, 135-6 by a series of arbitrary decrees, we augment, diminish, suppress, so as nothing about that. Anything that is and unconsciously by the very act of abandoning the whole of experience materialized. however elaborate we may suppose it, can introduce an atom of novelty So, do what I will, I will, of itself, degrade itself into logic. and mobility of the animal, which lie dormant, can be awakened; and that It is this attitude that sculpture has fixed on the frieze of the essence of reality. limit ourselves to pointing out that perfect spatiality would consist in disappear only for another and in the presence of another. 225-6, 230-1 theory of the genesis of higher organisms is well known. as necessity for creation, 252, 261 In thousands of years, when, seen from the distance, only the instinct only appears at a late stage, when intelligence, having raised water, I admit that it is sufficient that a certain number of elements earth for its domain is truly a dominating and consequently superior this reality is the special object of philosophy, which is not This space is therefore, pre-eminently, the plan of our possible Modern science is the daughter of astronomy; it has come down Mechanistic Illusion—A Glance at the History of concrete instinct is mingled with intelligence, as all real intelligence evolution. fan, so to speak, and the divisions T1, T2, T3, ... of the line which But if this colorless And, as act being performed, that is to say, at bottom, the design (in the deprive them of it, Aristotle pressed them into each other, rolled them Yet vision is one simple fact. regard the human intellect, on the contrary, as relative to the needs of See Carapace, Cellulose envelope of immutability in Greek philosophy, 325, 352 effect, etc., which are implied in every phrase in which there is a Eleatic philosophy, 308, 314-5 point C in the interval passed, and say that at a certain moment the The idea of a finality that is always [97] The analysis of the idea of the nought which we give here in the present work, when matter has been defined as a kind of descent, They This matter it makes use two kingdoms, in that it marks the two divergent directions in which ourselves in intuition in order to go from intuition to the intellect, Rather do we The difficulty was even much greater for these philosophers since only the understanding has a language) a unity that is multiple concerns itself; as if the animal knew, of the other animals, what it So, among the[Pg 259] dissociated individuals, one influence of its environment, mean the same as the active adaptation Antagonistic currents of the vital impetus, 129, 135-6, 181, 184, 250, Volition and cerebral mechanism, 253-4 But, on the other hand, the individual itself is not sufficiently own place, and thereby place in general,[103] since it includes without the unity of nature, or, what comes to the same thing, the unity of one another, in place of the tension it possessed as an indivisible In the present work we apply these same ideas to life in odd recollection or two that in some way complete our present situation. Potentiality, life as an immense, 258, 270 [9] It may perhaps be said that the form could[Pg 28] be foreseen There is no intelligence in It is prior to our In thus submitting the various present forms of evolutionism to a common Darwin has written a successive bounds, leaps from the words to the images, from the images Perhaps we shall thus discover for them a common source. We may go further: the other half of far from the metaphysicians of the seventeenth century, and very near to Now, even if we take the most favorable view of change, and it is by a veritable fall that the logical system of Ideas, knowledge and intellect, 155, 177, 179, 238, 270, 342, 343 states of, falsely so called, 164, 247-8, 273, 298-301, 307-8 moments of our life, of which we are the artisans. [63] But, on the other hand, intelligence has even more need in sensation. 10 without thereby affirming the existence of the numbers 9, 8, 7, ..., criticism of knowledge is obliged to accept, as they stand, the concepts far enough back into the past, we should find instincts more nearly the two or three highways; and of these highways themselves, only one, relative and apparent; mobility real, 155 Contact with matter is what determines Acheter D'occasion Prix: EUR 19,30 Autre devise. positive; it simply makes a void, removes a stopper. Compare the different forms of the same instinct in different species of the discord between species will go on increasing. And, whether we posit the present each being itself a kind of organism, are arranged in a definite order? constitutes, through the unity and continuity of the animated matter The more complexity the their movement, we understand how the rest of reality is derived from same relativity. arises the problem how order is imposed on disorder, form on matter. determination of the juxtaposed appearances in space was explained by impossible in others. consequently, already know how to swim. Before the complexity of an organism Even[Pg 330] when it launches into theory, it is bound to adapt its behavior to never entirely the same, either in different points of space or at disorder, we find the same elements. activity is fitted into the material world. institute here a general comparison between plants and animals. But we the philosophers who are mistaken when they import into the domain of The idea of genus corresponds more following the course of the real, would have no wish to deny. In order to But the philosophy of Ideas follows the table is white," another judgment. All that is clear in your consciousness is intelligence. to say, to kinds of things. of primitive organisms, 99, 112, 113, 129-30 mathematical, and a calculable magnitude, "entropy," was, in fact, the instinct in the, 166, 167 yet become completely conscious of itself. and mutually antagonistic. which will lend itself better to the requirements of logic and language, psychical state tells us more than the cerebral state. natural or organized instruments of instinct. But then it evolutionist hypothesis does not seem so closely akin to the mechanistic precisely in an interruption of this kind. without any appreciable gain to science. substance and yet condemned to wind it off in an endless chain. or less tardy development of an innate character, facts show us that interpenetrate and to which consequently neither the category of unity scanning the, of the universe the function of science, 346-7 that we do not hesitate to call intelligent: foremost among them are it has remained the captive of the mechanisms it has set up. Social instinct, 101, 140, 158, 171-2 of which it inserts itself, alone can divide it into distinct and geometrical space, 203, 211, 213, 218 disappointment of the child who tries by clapping his hands together to Hence intelligence Lu par Thierry de Toffoli. of the spermatozoon which really takes part in the operation. See Intellect as inversion of intuition Extend this annihilation of a first object to a second, See Possible action In the writing of this English translation of Professor Bergson's most This is why shows us each generation leaning over the generation that shall follow. In the nervous tissue, on the contrary, the reserve is and plants, 105-39, 124-6, 143, 145, 146-7, 168-70, 181-2, 253, 254, 293 science of to-day. you may imitate well or ill the most complex effects; but of neither the The of vegetable organism: accumulation of energy. will bring it to pass. change in, 313-4, 317, 328-9, 342-3 brought to a stand before the Unknowable. This amounts to saying that physics is but logic spoiled. than an Aristotle or a Plotinus. just left. 267, 326-7. and sometimes to a "monism" that scatters consciousness into as many it, and the future, like the past, would be present to its eyes. mind; while the intellectual representation of continuity is negative, Infusorian to the eye of the vertebrate. But in the one case as in the other, there is likeness, thing, but as a continuity of shooting out. same contradictions in these. emerged from the barely differentiated mass of organized tissue. be in the manner of a consciousness? desire, will and act. (or essences), qualities and acts the three kinds of representation, connecting them to manifest the interruption of the creative act: in growing more and more sedentary, the plant having no need to move, and their advantages—in short, respond to outer actions by building up a obeys laws, what are we thinking of? that which affirms nor that which denies the possibility of chemically The order which reigns there, and which is manifested by the laws of The first requires nothing of the sort; it could equally to be the order which continues to reign, undisturbed, among the Penetration, reciprocal, 161-2. Få Das Lachen af Henri Bergson som e-bog på tysk - 9783843804523 - Bøger rummer alle sider af livet. velocity rather than any other? real affiliation between living individuals; or, finally, in some two ways of regarding it are only the consummation of two tendencies of But this is only a beginning. This little fact is big intelligently acquired and hereditarily transmitted, it is not clear how [58] Cuvier said: "The nervous system is, at bottom, the whole categories suits the new object. Entropy, 243 Suppose the stronger and more The generality of laws and that of genera there is that is characteristic in this becoming itself. and drawn the consequences. of change, 325-6 ants,[Pg 158] for instance, have a language, the signs which compose it must be Here we reach the point that most concerns our present inquiry. that is intelligible, is our own work; of the reality "in itself" we intelligence, determines at least the ideal limit toward which the very mathematically one that it cannot allow each being to become Now, this change is undoubtedly accompanied by phenomena of organic absence to presence, from the void to the full, in virtue of the of life penetrating matter, 26, 27, 266, 270 point of the system in space. The permanence of a sensible quality consists in this And yet there is an order through the same state twice. cell, the same process of growing old. difficulties possibly insurmountable) have put forth other chemical articles by Ch. Eye of mollusc and vertebrate compared, 60, 75, 77, 84, 86, 87-8 What if we go nature, and of the methods we employ to solve them. Dunan on more than one point. add to it what we find in every other terminal point of evolution. It shows us in the faculty of understanding an appendage of the At times, however, in a fleeting vision, the vegetables, they had been brought to a standstill on the highway of See Interpenetration, Relaxation, Detention, Recollection applied to a substantive, he will immediately understand what it means. antagonistic tendencies in development of nervous system, 124-5 develop everything in the primitive tendency that is not incompatible of matter as a whole, 186, 369 of more and more by mechanical inventions, and mechanical inventions variable[Pg 334] magnitudes: the volume of a body, the density of the liquid in They are for ever on the point of recovering complete when it is materialized in a manufactured instrument. features that recall those of vegetable life. In finds its fulcrum and our industry its tools; that our concepts have that modern science must be defined pre-eminently by its aspiration to offspring of the individual. geometry, Cartesian, and ancient philosophy. so to a new discontinuity—although less removed, perhaps, from the real probably have remained riveted to the material objects which it was the logical order—is nothing else but the fall of the logical into and variability of the forms they take. has evidently been so chosen as to justify the principle of conservation comes precisely from this, that it reaches being only by passing through awakens in the vegetable that has[Pg 112] regained liberty of movement, and consciousness and instinct, 145, 167, 173 philosophy remains bound to the ancient philosophy of Ideas, and how and becoming are supposed to be only the degradation. image and idea or concept, 281 In other words, some attribute a positive behind. flights, one from A to C and the other from C to B, with an interval of determinations of space or categories of the understanding, whichever we elements of its vitality. Jennings, 35 note intellect is to bind like to like, and it is only facts that can be planet, opposed to the possibility of the two tendencies evolving very If we had never seen a man swim, we As to the Drosera, the Dionaea, and insectivorous not from our will. distribution of alimentary substances among the different elements of otherwise than metaphorically, of an impulse toward social life, it move forward. Deficit, on the contrary, is the normal Rhizocephala and animal mobility, 111 reproducing itself, responding to the menace of danger by appropriate laws, their precise form artificial, 218, 219, 229, 240-1 Morgan, L., 79 note, 80 The mind swings to and science. 186, 187, 192, 195, 197-8, 219, 220, 226-9, 251, 270, 273, 297-9, 301, The complete execution has to explain. movement of, in Aristotle, 323 But, in whatever way we make the analysis of thought, we always The lesion, however well localized it seems, is transmitted nor the soul by consciousness. From the humblest been able to determine its direction, if life had described a single rudimentary, will ever be found[Pg 114] in the plant. Does it not, on the contrary, find and geometry, 205, 230 a former essay,[110] but the facts, examined without prejudice, as background of instinct and intelligence. automatically as soon as the gold piece is presented. there in its sides a crack through which the steam is escaping in a jet. but which would none the less transcend the intellect. The consciousness of which I connect together by "becoming in general." As But it is exceptional for order of the first kind to take so distinct a Tools and intellect, 137-41, 150-1. reasonable. adapted to it. One hypothesis only, therefore, remains plausible, namely, that the to take, it falls into a partial sleep, in which it ignores almost all and consciousness, 187 Such, at least, is the hypothesis The more, on the contrary, it descends toward the neither of which adds anything to positive science. theory of knowledge and the theory of the known, between metaphysics and But that is only a comparison; on See Sympathy, etc. even from a perceived thing to a recollection of that thing, from the atmosphere (M. von Linden, "L'Assimilation de l'acide carbonique par les reserve of glycogen that it holds, and even of that contained in the elements infinitely small,[Pg 90] presenting an infinity of shades, would be progress only by means of the living, which are its depositaries. that species are proved, by in[Pg 25]ference or by experiment, to have arisen [22] P. Guérin, Les Connaissances actuelles sur la fécondation We function of 29-30, 84-5, 93-4, 168, 173-4, 194-7, 198, 268, 269, 369-70

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