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A diverse range of individuals including Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, Franz Rosenzweig, Eric Voegelin and A. J. Ayer have challenged Hegelian philosophy from a variety of perspectives. In 1776, he entered Stuttgart's gymnasium illustre and during his adolescence read voraciously, copying lengthy extracts in his diary. Now in a weak state of health, Hegel seldom went out. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel bei Penguin Random House Verlagsgruppe | Jetzt informieren [99] Broadly speaking, the term was split, like Hegel's followers, to the political left and right. (Hegel has been seen in the twentieth century as the originator of the thesis, antithesis, synthesis triad,[34] but as an explicit phrase it originated with Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Animado por su padre para que se hiciera pastor protestante, en 1788 ingresó en el seminario de la Universidad de Tubinga, donde entabló amistad con el poeta Friedrich Hölderlin y el filósofo Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, de significada filiación romántica, compartiendo con ellos su entusiasmo por la Revoluci… All greatly admired Hellenic civilization and Hegel additionally steeped himself in Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Lessing during this time. For his god, Hegel does not take the logos of Heraclitus but refers to the nous of Anaxagoras, although he may well have regarded them the same as he continues to refer to god's plan, which is identical to God. "[80], The affinity between Hegel and Kant's logics ("speculative" and "transcendental" respectively) is apparent in their vocabulary. She died of "bilious fever" (Gallenfieber) when Hege… [103] One to which he attributes great significance is the fragment he translates as "Being is not more than Non-being", which he interprets to mean the following: Sein und Nichts sei dasselbeBeing and non-being are the same. Although Hegel began his philosophizing with commentary on the Christian religion and often expresses the view that he is a Christian, his ideas are not acceptable to some Christians even though he has had a major influence on 19th- and 20th-century theology. When he entered the Latin School two years later, he already knew the first declension, having been taught it by his mother. The infinitude of spirit is its inwardness, in an abstract sense its pure inwardness, and this is its thought, and this abstract thought is a real present infinitude, while its concrete inwardness consists in the fact that this thought is Spirit. [44][45][46][47][48][49] Derrida wrote of Hegel in his work Of Grammatology that "he undoubtedly summed up the entire philosophy of the logos. [97], Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge, mind, and reality was identity in difference; mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects and stands outside or opposed to them and, through recognizing itself in them, is "with itself" in these external manifestations so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind. The origin of philosophy is to be dated from Heraclitus. He achieved wide renown in his day and, while primarily influential within the continental tradition of philosophy, has become increasingly influential in the analytic tradition as well. Marx plays little-to-no role in these new readings. [146], Isaiah Berlin listed Hegel as one of the six architects of modern authoritarianism who undermined liberal democracy, along with Rousseau, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Fichte, Saint-Simon and Joseph de Maistre. Hegel besuchte in Stuttgart zunächst die Deutsche und Lateinische Schule. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Full view - 1920. Herbert L. and Patricia Allen Dreyfus). [94]:146 Rather than stress the singularity of each factor that complements and conflicts with the others, the relationship between finite and infinite (and particular and universal, and nature and freedom) becomes intelligible as a progressively developing and self-perfecting whole. [30][31], Hegel's principal achievement was his development of a distinctive articulation of idealism, sometimes termed absolute idealism,[32] in which the dualisms of, for instance, mind and nature and subject and object are overcome. [137] Logical positivists such as Ayer and the Vienna Circle criticized both Hegelian philosophy and its supporters, such as Bradley. Hegel was fascinated by the works of Kant, Rousseau and Johann Wolfgang Goethe and by the French Revolution. Contradiction and negation have the dynamic quality that every point in each domain of reality—consciousness, history, philosophy, art, nature and society—leads to further development until a rational unity is reached that preserves the contradictions as phases and sub-parts by lifting them up (Aufhebung) to a higher unity. [95] Böhme had written that the Fall of Man was a necessary stage in the evolution of the universe. By 14 November, Hegel was dead. The State subsumes family and civil society and fulfills them. Hegel's concept of Aufhebung, by which parts are preserved and repurposed within the whole, anticipates the concept of emergence in contemporary systems theory and evolutionary biology. His master–slave dialectic has been influential, especially in 20th-century France. [124] After less than a generation, Hegel's philosophy was banned by the Prussian right-wing and was firmly rejected by the left-wing in multiple official writings. p. 100, In the 1870s and 1880s, Rev. Hegel's State is the final culmination of the embodiment of freedom or right (Rechte) in the Elements of the Philosophy of Right. Finite things do not determine themselves because, as "finite" things, their essential character is determined by their boundaries over against other finite things, so in order to become "real" they must go beyond their finitude ("finitude is only as a transcending of itself").[94]:145. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel- Philosophie der Geschichte Leinen, 1961, Reclam jun., zufriedenstellender Zustand, gebräunt, etwas beschriftet und bestoßen Einführung von Theodor Litt Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte. [104] Pure being and pure non-being or nothingness are, for Hegel, abstractions from the reality of becoming and this is also how he interprets Heraclitus. Heraclitus did not form any abstract nouns from his ordinary use of "to be" and "to become" and seemed to oppose any identity A to any other identity B, C and so on, which is not-A. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (often known as G. W. F. Hegel or Georg Hegel) (1770 - 1831) was a German philosopher of the early Modern period. This eternity of Spirit in itself means that Spirit is, to begin with, potential; but the next standpoint implies that Spirit ought to be what it is in its essential and complete nature, in-and-for-itself. View Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. According to their argument, although Hegel referred to "the two elemental considerations: first, the idea of freedom as the absolute and final aim; secondly, the means for realising it, i.e. [citation needed]. In the United States, Hegel's influence is evident in pragmatism. [101] For Hegel, Heraclitus's great achievements were to have understood the nature of the infinite, which for Hegel includes understanding the inherent contradictoriness and negativity of reality; and to have grasped that reality is becoming or process and that "being" and "nothingness" are empty abstractions. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (/ˈheɪɡəl/; German: [ˈɡeːɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher of the late Enlightenment. [76] In August 1831, a cholera epidemic reached Berlin and Hegel left the city, taking up lodgings in Kreuzberg. In other words, it is not enough to consider propositions, or even the content of consciousness; "it is worthwhile to ask in every instance what kind of spirit would entertain such propositions, hold such views, and have such a consciousness. [110] This led Hegelian philosopher, jurist and politician Carl Friedrich Göschel (1784–1861) to write a treatise demonstrating the consistency of Hegel's philosophy with Christian doctrine on the soul's immortality (Von den Beweisen für die Unsterblichkeit der menschlichen Seele im Lichte der spekulativen Philosophie: eine Ostergabe – From the evidence of the immortality of the human soul in the light of speculative philosophy: an Easter gift) (Berlin: Verlag von Duncker und Humblot, 1835). And although the Logic's table of contents minimally resembles Kant's table of categories, the four headings of Kant's table (quantity, quality, relation, and modality) do not play, in Hegel's dialectic, the organizational role that Kant had in mind for them, and Hegel ultimately faulted Kant for copying the table of judgments from the "modern compendiums of logic" whose subject matter is, Hegel said, in need of "total reconstruction. The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole. This notion of identity in difference, which is bound up with his conception of contradiction and negativity, is a principal feature differentiating Hegel's thought from other philosophers. "[144], Karl Popper wrote that "there is so much philosophical writing (especially in the Hegelian school) which may justly be criticised as meaningless verbiage". Kaufmann also pointed out that Hegel's references to God or to the divine and spirit drew on classical Greek as well as Christian connotations of the terms. Please try your request again later. [138] Hegel was described by Schopenhauer as a "clumsy charlatan". He lectured on "Logic and Metaphysics" and gave lectures with Schelling on an "Introduction to the Idea and Limits of True Philosophy" and facilitated a "philosophical disputorium". [140] The physicist and philosopher Ludwig Boltzmann also criticized the obscure complexity of Hegel's works, referring to Hegel's writing as an "unclear thoughtless flow of words". Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, he was known as Wilhelm to his close family. In accounts of Hegelianism formed prior to the Hegel renaissance, Hegel's dialectic was often characterized as a three-step process, "thesis, antithesis, synthesis"; a "thesis" (e.g. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (/ˈheɪɡəl/; German: [ˈɡeːɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher of the late Enlightenment. Late 20th-century literature in Western Theology that is friendly to Hegel includes works by such writers as Walter Kaufmann (1966), Dale M. Schlitt (1984), Theodore Geraets (1985), Philip M. Merklinger (1991), Stephen Rocker (1995) and Cyril O'Regan (1995). Popper further proposed that Hegel's philosophy served not only as an inspiration for communist and fascist totalitarian governments of the 20th century, whose dialectics allow for any belief to be construed as rational simply if it could be said to exist. As the new semester began in October, Hegel returned to Berlin in the mistaken belief that the epidemic had largely subsided. To his chagrin, Fries was, in the same year, made Ordinary Professor (salaried).[59]:224–25. 1770 1831. The early nineteenth century philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel is an important figure of German idealism, who achieved wide recognition within the continental tradition of philosophy. In 1831, Frederick William III decorated him with the Order of the Red Eagle, 3rd Class for his service to the Prussian state. The finite has to become infinite in order to achieve reality. [126] Kaufmann has argued that as unlikely as it may sound, it is not the case that Hegel was unable to write clearly, but that Hegel felt that "he must and should not write in the way in which he was gifted".[127]. Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Hegel wurde als Sohn einer alten Beamten- und Theologenfamilie am 27. Unable to find more suitable employment, Hegel reluctantly accepted. [139] Kierkegaard criticized Hegel's "absolute knowledge" unity. Every member loves the State with genuine patriotism, but has transcended simple "team spirit" by reflectively endorsing their citizenship. The Left Hegelians, also known as the Young Hegelians, interpreted Hegel in a revolutionary sense, leading to an advocation of atheism in religion and liberal democracy in politics. The philosopher Walter Kaufmann argued that there was sharp criticism of traditional Christianity in Hegel's early theological writings. God rises again to life, and thus things are reversed". Logic, particularly the doctrine of the concept, was metaphysics; it was the search for a fundamental ontological structure within the relations of the most basic predicates (quantity, time, place etc. They both know their obligations and choose to fulfill them. Martin Heidegger (trans. And debates about the nature of logic were intertwined with competition to inherit the mantle of Kant and with it the future direction of German philosophy. the subjective side of knowledge and will, with its life, movement, and activity" (thesis and antithesis), he did not use "synthesis", but instead spoke of the "Whole": "We then recognised the State as the moral Whole and the Reality of Freedom, and consequently as the objective unity of these two elements". In 1801, Hegel came to Jena at the encouragement of his old friend Schelling, who held the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University of Jena. Scholars continue to point out Hegelian influences in a range of theoretical and/or learned works, such as Carl von Clausewitz's book on strategic thought, On War (1831). Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) is one of the most influential texts in the history of modern philosophy. [148] This concept of Hegel as a hermetic thinker was elaborated by Glenn Alexander Magee,[149] who argued that interpreting Hegel's body of work as an expression of mysticism and hermetic ideas leads to a more accurate understanding of Hegel. She died of bilious fever (Gallenfieber) when Hegel was thirteen. German idealist philosopher who interpreted nature and human history and culture as expressions of a dialectical process in which Spirit, or Mind, realizes its full potentiality. (Unabridged) 2017 Einleitung in die Philosophie des Geistes. Hegel's system is often presented in the form of a Sierpiński triangle due to his tendency to group concepts by triads. Throughout the 19th century, many chairs of philosophy around Europe were held by Hegelians and Søren Kierkegaard, Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels—among many others—were deeply influenced by, but also strongly opposed to many of Hegel's central philosophical themes. [107] He espouses that "God is not an abstraction but a concrete God [...] God, considered in terms of his eternal Idea, has to generate the Son, has to distinguish himself from himself; he is the process of differentiating, namely, love and Spirit". "[38] Karl Barth described Hegel as a "Protestant Aquinas"[39] while Maurice Merleau-Ponty wrote that "all the great philosophical ideas of the past century—the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, phenomenology, German existentialism, and psychoanalysis—had their beginnings in Hegel. Geburtstags von Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, einem der wirkmächtigsten Philosophen der jüngeren Philosophiegeschichte, erscheint einmalig und in begrenzter Auflage eine ebenso kompakte w 91 in Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Bücher) Nr. Author's preface to "On The Fourfold Root of the Principle of sufficient reason. Hegel's remaining two sons—Karl, who became a historian; and Immanuel [de], who followed a theological path—lived long and safeguarded their father's manuscripts and letters, and produced editions of his works. Schelling and Hölderlin immersed themselves in theoretical debates on Kantian philosophy, from which Hegel remained aloof. )[35][a], Hegel has influenced many thinkers and writers whose own positions vary widely. Hegel was deeply disturbed by the riots for reform in Berlin in that year. [87] Hegel understood the history of philosophy to be a trans-historical socratic argument concerning the identity of the Absolute. Le système est présenté comme une « phénoménologie de l'esprit » puis comme une « encyclopédie de… In particular, Russell considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. Mein Freund Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Die Welt ist Geist (German Edition) Posted in Bestsellers , Discover Entdecke Découvrir , Ebooks , Finance & Venture Capital , Neu Price: 3,99 € Martin Heidegger (trans. Hegel's contemporary Schopenhauer was particularly critical and wrote of Hegel's philosophy as "a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers, stifling all real thinking". Because every concept is a composite of contraries (value is black and white, temperature is hot and cold, etc. In 1817, Hegel published The Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Outline as a summary of his philosophy for students attending his lectures at Heidelberg. A. Pelczynski and Shlomo Avineri. Two prominent American philosophers, John McDowell and Robert Brandom (sometimes referred to as the "Pittsburgh Hegelians"), have produced philosophical works with a marked Hegelian influence. "[57][58], Hegel was born on 27 August 1770 in Stuttgart, capital of the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. ); 1984; "[T]he task that touches the interest of philosophy most nearly at the present moment: to put God back at the peak of philosophy, absolutely prior to all else as the one and only ground of everything." What distinguishes them from materialists like Epicurus and Thomas Hobbes and from empiricists like David Hume, is that they regarded freedom or self-determination as real and having important ontological implications for soul or mind or divinity. [74]:773, Having received offers of a post from the Universities of Erlangen, Berlin and Heidelberg, Hegel chose Heidelberg, where he moved in 1816. It was perfectly legitimate in Hegel's eyes for a conqueror, such as Napoleon, to come and destroy that which was not fully realized. : 036693. In his posthumously published Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, Part 3, Hegel is particularly interested in demonstrations of God's existence and the ontological proof. While Aristotle criticized Plato's "Forms", he preserved Plato's ontological implications for self-determination: ethical reasoning, the soul's pinnacle in the hierarchy of nature, the order of the cosmos and reasoned arguments for a prime mover. "[78] He was buried on 16 November. [135] The Swiss theologian Hans Küng has also advanced contemporary Hegelian scholarship. Having received his theological certificate (Konsistorialexamen) from the Tübingen Seminary, Hegel became Hofmeister (house tutor) to an aristocratic family in Bern (1793–1796). Twentieth-century interpretations of Hegel were mostly shaped by British idealism, logical positivism, Marxism and Fascism. Hegel cites a number of fragments of Heraclitus in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy. Especially crucial are Aristotle, Immanuel Kant and Kant's immediate successors, most prominently Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. "Rezension des Aenesidemus" ("Review of Aenesidemus"), This term is actually quite rare in Hegel's writings. Here, Hegel published his Philosophy of Right (1821). ), all the pure concepts of the understanding are immanently contained within the most abstract concept; the entire tree of the concepts of the pure understanding unfolds from a single concept the way a tree grows from a seed. However, Hegel himself describes the system as a "circle of circles:", ...the science presents itself as a circle that winds around itself, where the mediation winds the end back to the beginning which is the simple ground; the circle is thus a circle of circles, for each single member ensouled by the method is reflected into itself so that, in returning to the beginning it is at the same time the beginning of a new member.[91]. Kant derived his own table of categories (the twelve pure or "ancestral" concepts of the understanding that structure all experience irrespective of content) from a standard term-logical table of judgments, noting also that, ...the true ancestral concepts...also have their equally pure derivative concepts, which could by no means be passed over in a complete system of transcendental philosophy, but with the mere mention of which I can be satisfied in a merely critical essay. This view, sometimes referred to as the "non-metaphysical option", has influenced many major English-language studies of Hegel. Gemeinschaft In Gesellschaft Soziologie Nach Hegel Und. To Hegel, Jesus is both divine and human. Hegel's posthumous works have had remarkable influence on subsequent works on religion, aesthetics, and history because of the comprehensive accounts of the subject matters considered within the lectures, with Heidegger for example in Poetry, Language, Thought characterizing Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics as the "most comprehensive reflection on the nature of art that the West possesses—comprehensive because it stems from metaphysics."[123]. Part of his remit was to teach a class called "Introduction to Knowledge of the Universal Coherence of the Sciences", Hegel developed the idea of an encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences, falling into three parts: logic, philosophy of nature and philosophy of spirit. While in Nuremberg, Hegel adapted his recently published Phenomenology of Spirit for use in the classroom. p. 1. He has since become increasingly influential in the analytic tradition and his canonical stature within Western philosophy is universally recognised. Hegel's influence was immense in philosophy and other sciences. Critiques of Hegel offered by the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a large part of the literature on and about Hegel. Pelczynski, A.Z. For Hegel, reason is "speculative" – not "dialectical". It was written in Hegel's hand, but may have been authored by Hegel, Schelling, Hölderlin, or an unknown fourth person.[67]. However, Hegel used this classification only once and he attributed the terminology to Kant. [133] The Hegel renaissance also highlighted the significance of Hegel's early works (i.e. [59]:223 Hegel attempted to enlist the help of the poet and translator Johann Heinrich Voß to obtain a post at the renascent University of Heidelberg, but he failed. In 1805, the university promoted Hegel to the position of Extraordinary Professor (unsalaried) after he wrote a letter to the poet and minister of culture Johann Wolfgang Goethe protesting the promotion of his philosophical adversary Jakob Friedrich Fries ahead of him. For example: Parmenides took pure being to be the absolute; Gorgias replaced it with pure nothing; Heraclitus replaced both being and nothing with becoming (which is a unity of two contraries: coming-to-be and ceasing-to-be). This focus on freedom is what generates Plato's notion (in the Phaedo, Republic and Timaeus) of the soul as having a higher or fuller kind of reality than that possessed by inanimate objects. Hijo de un funcionario de la hacienda pública, Hegel creció en un ambiente de pietismo protestante y estudió a los clásicos griegos y latinos mientras estuvo en el gymnasium de su ciudad natal. Today this faction continues among conservative Protestants, such as the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, which was founded by missionaries from Germany when the Hegelian Right was active. In accordance with his wishes, Hegel was buried in the Dorotheenstadt cemetery next to Fichte and Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger. Although the violence of the 1793 Reign of Terror dampened Hegel's hopes, he continued to identify with the moderate Girondin faction and never lost his commitment to the principles of 1789, which he expressed by drinking a toast to the storming of the Bastille every fourteenth of July.[64]. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel zur Einführung hat einen ISBN 9783885063520 und besteht aus 192 Seiten. With his finances drying up quickly, Hegel was under great pressure to deliver his book, the long-promised introduction to his philosophical system. [63] They watched the unfolding of the French Revolution with shared enthusiasm. For other uses, see, Articles related to Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Bern (1793–1796) and Frankfurt (1797–1801). That history should resemble this dialectic indicated to Hegel that history is something rational. In 1802, Schelling and Hegel founded the journal Kritische Journal der Philosophie (Critical Journal of Philosophy) to which they contributed until the collaboration ended when Schelling left for Würzburg in 1803. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel | Fulda, Hans Friedrich | ISBN: 9783406494451 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. For Hegel, analysis or comprehension of a thing or idea reveals that underneath its apparently simple identity or unity is an underlying inner contradiction. Nutzen Sie die Gelegenheit, das Buch Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel zur Einführung des Autors Schnädelbach, Herbert online zu öffnen und zu speichern. Schopenhauer, Arthur. Each new logic book staked a new claim in a century-long expansionist turf war among philosophical trends.[79]. Hegel distinguished between civil society and state in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right. [111][112][113], Hegel conceived of the immortality of the soul in the following manner in reference to Christianity:[114][115], Thus the immortality of the soul must not be represented as first entering the sphere of reality only at a later stage; it is the actual present quality of spirit; spirit is eternal, and for this reason is already present. Since human thought is the image and fulfillment of God's thought, God can be understood by an analysis of thought and reality. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (/ˈheɪɡəl/;[27][28] German: [ˈɡeːɔʁk ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡl̩];[28][29] 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure in German idealism. those written before The Phenomenology of Spirit). Hegel rendered these dualities intelligible by (ultimately) his argument in the "Quality" chapter of the "Science of Logic". Read "The Essential Works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Phenomenology of Mind, Philosophy of Mind, Aesthetics, The Criticism of Hegle's Work and Hegelianism by Schopenhauer & Nietzsche, Biography" by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel available from Rakuten Kobo. Spirit, as possessed of freedom, does not belong to the sphere of things limited; it, as being what thinks and knows in an absolute way, has the universal for its object; this is eternity, which is not simply duration, as duration can be predicated of mountains, but knowledge. This sparked a renewed interest in Hegel reflected in the work of Herbert Marcuse, Theodor W. Adorno, Ernst Bloch, Raya Dunayevskaya, Alexandre Kojève and Gotthard Günther among others. The eternity of spirit is here brought into consciousness, and is found in this reasoned knowledge, in this very separation, which has reached the infinitude of being-for-self, and which is no longer entangled in what is natural, contingent, and external. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Basic Outline: Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Basic Outline (Cambridge Hegel Translations) by Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Fredrich at AbeBooks.co.uk - ISBN 10: 1107499690 - ISBN 13: 9781107499690 - Cambridge University Press - 2015 - Softcover Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich: Bei bücher.de finden Sie interessante Fachbücher, die Sie umfassend informieren. Hegel enseigne la philosophie sous la forme d'un système de tous les savoirs suivant une logique dialectique. "[90] Hegel went so far as to include the concept of life as a category in his Science of Logic, likely inspired by Aristotle's emphasis on teleology, as well as Kant's treatment of Naturzweck (natural purposiveness) in the Critique of Judgment.

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